Federal Courts Act and Rule of Law (CANADA)

Federal Courts Act s 2(1):

“federal board, commission or other tribunal” means any body, person or persons having, exercising or purporting to exercise jurisdiction or powers conferred by or under an Act of Parliament or by or under an order made pursuant to a prereogative of the Crown, other than the Tax Court of Canada or any of its judges, any such body constituted or established by or under a law of a province or any such person or persons appointed under or in accordance with a law of a province or under section 96”.

There are exceptions to the above definition:
-if statute gives power to another Court
-if remedy is not provided by Federal Court act e..g habeus corpus application

There are two grounds for judicial review – Procedural and Substantive.

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Definitions of Administrative Law (Canada)

Administrative actor: subject to the principles of admin law. Includes persons or bodies that exercise statutory or prerogative power. Boards, tribunals, etc are usually given authority pursuant to statute.

Judicial review: administrative actors are subject to judicial review. It is part of public law where superior courts under s96 engage in surveillance of lower tribunals to ensure they are acting legally. S96 courts derive their power from s96 of constitution, hence the name. The role of s96 courts in judicial review is part of their inherent authority. Federal courts operate differently they operate as equivalent as s96 court however they have statutory power, not inherent power. When they invented federal courts they took some powers that should belong to s96 courts and gave them to federal courts.

Sample cases where judicial review does or does not apply.

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More Info and Details on the Development of Security Agreements

An oral security agreement is valid. But that agreement is only enforceable as between the parties. If you want to have priority rights against third parties then there has to be a security agreement in writing.

“Enforceability” against third parties:
A security interest is enforceable against a third party only where… a description of the collateral by item or kind or by reference to one or more of the following: “crops”, “goods”, “chattel paper”, etc. etc.”

“by kind” – i.e. a generic description of the item. So you can refer to the item as “a car” rather than “a black on black 2008 BMW M3 with six speed manual transmission” or whatever. That being said, while this generic description may satisfy s10, in real life it may not be specific enough for the world of evidence or contracts if things ever went to litigation.

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Secured Financing Intro

The idea of modernizing finance law has spread around the world. Secured financing is a way to stimulate economic growth and modernize an economy. In theory, capital is not used to develop the community because of the lack of legal infrastructure by which banks can lend capital and can hold an expectation to get it back. Many developing countries adopt systems patterned on the Canadian system.

In Canadian law, the core of the system is the security interest. What is a security interest? A secured interest is Propriety interest in the debtors property. This allows assertion of the nemo dat principle. The secured creditor defeats anyone who thereafter who takes an interest in the property.

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Intro to Regulatory Offences

Regulatory offences: Some offences utilize the machinery of criminal law, but are not truly considered to be criminal offences. These offences deal with everyday civil matters such as traffic infractions, pollution, hunting regulations, and so forth. Besides the supremely important fault requirement (discussed below), there are a number of ways to identify a “regulatory offence” from a “true crime”:

1. true crimes are usually more socially and morally condemned than regulatory offences.
2. regulatory offences are usually aimed at deterring harm to the public, rather than the individual.
3. regulatory offences are often part of a complex regulatory framework.
4. regulatory offences are not in the Criminal Code (R. v Wholesale Travel, 1993).

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Limiting Your Treatments after Injury

Is it true that you are entitled to certain insurance benefits from your own insurer, regardless of who was at fault? It’s true, in Canada these benefits are often called ‘Section B benefits’. However, insurers like to erroneously inform injured clients that they will only ‘authorize’ 21 treatments (of various kinds). This is not true. Continue reading Limiting Your Treatments after Injury

Keeping an Injury Diary

If you’ve ever been injured in an accident such as a motor vehicle, then you may be seeking compensation for damages. Damages to your car is one thing, but to your body is quite another. Soft tissue damage is unseen (another blog post) and can be a prolonged injury.

Some believe keeping an injury diary is a good way to keep track of the increasing severity of their injury overtime. This may sound like a good idea at the outset, but it turns out to work against the injured. Here’s why. Continue reading Keeping an Injury Diary

Two main approaches to international law: positivism and naturalism

Historically, there are two main approaches to international law:

Natural law, which can be thought of as the idea that power of law does not come from voice of authority. In contrast positivisim says the authority is what makes the law the law. Natural law says there is a higher reason why the law is the law (e.g morality, universal principles, religious, etc.). Under natural law, horrific immoral laws would not be valid even if they came from a legitimate authority.

The application of these approaches goes back 2000 years. Natural law finds its origins in ancient Rome and Cicero the philosopher. Thomas Aquinas examined source of the aw’s legitimacy; according to him natural law is God’s natural law.

A modern definition explores how natural law is universally applicable with rules derived from reason; a doctrine that human affairs should be governed by ethical principles understood by reason.

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