Speeding is a leading cause of motor vehicle accidents. Drivers typically speed because they believe they will arrive at their destination quicker. A common misconception that many drivers have is that driving 10 km/h over the posted speed limit is low risk and will cut down on their commute time. Anecdotal evidence also suggests that law enforcement officers will not pull you over if you are speeding between 5 to 9 km/h over the posted speed limit. In reality, if you are driving even 1 km/h over the posted speed limit and a police officer with a speed gun clocks you, they are well within their rights to issue you a speeding ticket. However likely or unlikely this is to happen in real life is debatable, and not the subject of this article.
Appropriate speed limits are determined by taking into account a variety of factors, including road design, volume of traffic, as well as the likelihood of encountering pedestrians in the area. Speed limits are set for ideal road conditions, so if the roads are wet or icy and visibility is poor, the posted speed limit will be too fast. These are not arbitrarily imposed limits and they are enforced for public safety. By following the posted speed limit, you decrease your odds of being involved in a motor vehicle collision and potentially injuring yourself and another person.
For the most, a house will be the single greatest purchase of their lifetime. This is particularly true in large cities where real-estate prices are much higher than rural areas. There is a significant amount of research, a well defined process, and necessary expertise to close real-estate transactions. But are there differences between single family home and townhouse / condo transactions?
Yes there is, and it’s more than just preference, but let’s start there.
In Canada, depending on the province where you reside, there are certain benefits that your insurer has to pay to you after you’ve been in a car accident. Often referred to as the ‘Section B’ insurer, insurance has to pay certain benefits. Generally speaking, there are both income loss and medical expense benefits that are potentially payable. An often overlooked entitlement under the Section B benefits in Alberta is the right to claim $135 a week if you are not employed and are unable to perform your household duties. This is often referred to as the ‘homemaker’s benefit’. The relevant section of the policy reads as follows :
Have you heard of horror stories that upon purchase of a new home, a couple may encounter that there are no appliances. Not just a microwave or toaster oven, but the fridge, range, washer and dryer, all gone?
It happens all the time.
You have to declare in the sale what items are included with the purchase, they are called chattels.
When someone leaves you some cash, land, a turtle, behind in their will, who is on the hook for any outstanding debts?
It goes without saying, nowadays there are fewer and fewer people retiring with a mound of cash. Some of our elderly folks need to work well into their seventies, and even then they’ll end up racking up debt to stay afloat.
There’s a lot to be said about specific law practices. In fact, there are few ‘general’ practices. Unlike the trades, lawyers typically aren’t ‘Jack of all Trades’. One guy doesn’t specialize in all forms of law. Certainly, there is a general knowledge of other areas, but specialization is very real and something you should pay attention to when selecting an attorney. just going with someone’s cousin Guido doesn’t mean you’re a shoe in for success.
Confidential employees are excluded from collective bargaining because they might be able to give the union access to matters that the employers do not wish them to know about such as bargaing strategy, grievances, etc. (Canadian Union of Bank Employees v. Nova Scotia). That being said, confidential employees will only be excluded if there is a demonstrated conflict of interest (see test).
Managers are usually excluded from collective bargaining as it is a fundamental premise of labour law that there is a conflict of interest between management and workers (Children’s Aid Society). The most important factors in determining if an individual is a manager are: the power to discipline, the power to hire, promote, demote, and grant wage increases (Children’s Aid). In addition we look to see the discretion exercised by these individuals (Quebec Telephone), being sure to distinguish whether the discretion exercised is “real” discretion, or just implementation of a rubric or policy manual.
Some statutes exclude certain professional employees from collective bargaining, on the basis that these employees already enjoy a privileged economic position. Traditionally, public employees were excluded from collective bargaining but nowadays we see more public sector employees involved in collective bargaining. Often public employees are covered by special collective bargaining statutes which put certain restricts on the subject matter of collective bargaining.